Proline is the non-essential amino acid with an aliphatic side chain. It is formed in our body from the other amino acids. It is non-polar and is hydrophobic. It has a secondary alpha amino group. It has codons CCA, CCC, CCU and CCG. Proline was obtained from casein in the year 1901. It is one of the amino acids which is soluble in alcohol. Proline exists in the form of cis configuration in the body. It also contains the pyrrole ring in it.
It is not so needed to be obtained from the food as it is itself formed within our body. But it is richly present in the meat.
Proline amino acid is formed from glutamate amino acid. The glutamate undergoes cyclization and reduction reaction and generates the proline amino acid. Many enzymes take place in this reaction. These include glutamate dehydrogenase enzyme, glutamate 5 kinases, pyrroline 5 carboxylate reductase and the glutamate 1 kinase enzyme.
- Proline gives rise to glutamic acid which is an important amino acid. This glutamic acid then gives rise to very important compounds such as glutathione, glutamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid, alpha-ketoglutarate etc.
- Proline is also converted to hydroxyproline by a post-translation reaction that is after it has been incorporated into the protein molecule.
- The hydroxyproline is an important component of the collagen. So proline indirectly improves the texture of our skin. Collagen also has many functions. Since it allows the damaged cartilage to heel early and also it is important for the vertebra and joints as it cushions the both.
- Failure of collagen synthesis due to some genetic defects leads to many disorders, for example, the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Other diseases due to an abnormal structure of collagen include osteoarthritis and osteogenesis imperfect disease.
- This hydroxyproline also gives rise to the formation of glyoxylic acid as well as the pyruvic acid in our body. The glyoxylic acid then forms oxalic acid and the pyruvic acid then gives rise alanine amino acid.
- Proline is interchangeable with the ornithine, thus it can lead to the formation of urea as well. On the other hand, ornithine has also been found to form proline.
- Proline is essential for the normal health of the tendons, joints and the muscles.
- Proline is also utilized in making a number of beneficial drugs.
- It has also been seemed to maintain the normal health of our muscle tissues.
Thus, proline is also an important amino acid. Its supplements are also available in the market. These are especially important in those people who are suffering from diseases due to collagen deficiency and also in those suffering from skin disorders and injuries.