Pain Disorders

pain disorders

Pain is actually a protective phenomenon and it occurs whenever any tissue is being damaged and it enables a person to react to remove the pain stimuli.

Types

There are two major types of pain.

Fast pain

This is the pain which is felt within about 0.1 seconds after a pain stimulus application. It is described as sharp pain, acute pain, pricking pain and electric pain. It is not felt in the deeper-most tissues f the body.

Slow pain

This pain begins only after 1 second or more and then increases slowly over time. It is described by many names as slow burning pain, throbbing pain, aching pain, nauseous pain and chronic type of pain. Slow pain is usually associated with tissue destruction. It can lead to the unbearable suffering of prolonged nature and it has a tendency to occur in the skin and in almost any deep tissue or organ.

Pain disorders are of a chronic type of pains which are due to either some disease or due to psychological stress. These are in various forms. Some of them are listed below.

  • Headaches: This is also chronic if a person is suffering from a migraine, tension, sinus and cluster headache. They can either be unilateral or bilateral. They disturb the person’s daily life activities.
  • Cancer pain: Cancers of various types lead to painful crisis e.g. leukemia and other blood disorders lead to the bone pain of intense intensity.
  • Fibromyalgia pain: This leads to fatigue and pain whose cause is unknown. This pain arises from muscles, joints, tendons, bursa, and ligaments.
  • Neuralgia: It is the most excruciating type of pain due to nerve involvement in the face. It makes the patient life worse.
  • Angina: It is the chest pain which occurs on exertion due to the poor blood supply to the heart.
  • Pain by Shingles: This is also very painful condition due to herpes virus after its relapse in immunocompromised people.
  • Arthritis: This is the inflammation of joints which if chronic can lead to severe joint pain and markedly affects a patient’s life.
  • Psychological pains: Some people under stress or depression feel chronic pain which has no pathological basis to explain.
  • Back pain: Low back pain is also a chronic type due to arthritis, degeneration or other pathology of the vertebras and muscles.
  • Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: This is a chronicity of feeling of being fatigued and lethargic. It affects daily life routine of people as well.
  • Sexual pain: There are sexual pain disorders as well in which a person feels pain while doing a sexual act. It includes
    1. Vaginismus: It is the involuntary contraction of the vaginal muscles which occur recurrently and interfere with the vaginal penetration.
    2. Dyspareunia: It occurs when an attempt is made to penetrate during a sexual act. It is also chronic and recurrent type.
  • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: It causes pain of pins and needles in the hand due to median nerve compression.

Diagnosis

A complete history of the patient is required for best diagnose. An emotional and personal history should be taken in detail. Many tests and MRI or CT scan should be done.

Treatment*

Make the patient calm and work out with his emotions and feelings to make him tension free. Cognitive behavioral therapy seems helpful along with certain medication. Firstly remove the cause which is causing the pain.

In case of pain due to a psychological problem, use of antidepressants, stress-reducing exercises and physical therapy is beneficial.

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