Hormones are the chemicals that offer a wide range of effects to our body system. From the head to toe, they influence all the body parts. It is, therefore, necessary to have balanced hormonal system. Any fluctuation in this system may prove detrimental to our health.
There are various kinds of hormones that are produced, released and affect our body system. They are classified into exocrine and endocrine hormones. Endocrine hormones have a major influence throughout over body. The endocrine glands include the hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal and important reproductive organs such as testes in males and ovaries in females. These all produce different kinds of hormones such as thyroid releasing hormones, growth hormones, thyroxine, calcitonin, parathyroid hormone, cortisol, insulin, glucagon, estrogen, prolactin, and progesterone etc. These all provide various beneficial effects to our body.
The function of Thyroid Hormones
The thyroid hormone maintains:
- Normal basal metabolic rate
- Heart rate
- Body metabolism
- Regulate the growth of long bones
- Development and differentiation of body cells
Function of Insulin
- It helps in maintaining a normal blood glucose level
- It has an effect on the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.
The function of Cortisol
- Acts as anti-inflammatory
- Formation of glucose
- Helps in healing
Function of Estrogen and Progesterone
- These are necessary for a normal female reproductive cycle as well as for maintenance of pregnancy.
Function of Testosterone
- It is required for secondary sexual development in the males and for normal sperm production.
Function of Prolactin
- This hormone allows milk ejaculation for lactation.
Likewise, there are several other hormones that provide beneficial effects to our body. But to get benefits of all these hormones, they should be regulated normally. Their imbalance can occur due to various reasons. And some of these are due to our negligence. These lead to either increase or decrease in these hormones with their subsequent effects on the body.
In case if there is a high level of thyroid hormone i.e. hyperthyroidism it leads to increase in metabolic rate, increased heart rate, fatigue, sleep problems and muscle wasting. Likewise, increase in cortisol leads to a disease called Cushing’s disease. A decrease in cortisol in the body leads to the risk of infections of various types. The abnormality of reproductive hormone effects fertility. The insulin deficiency can lead to diabetes mellitus, the commonest disease among our population. It can further proceed to various clinical manifestations if not controlled. High level of growth hormone causes gigantism while deficiency leads to growth retardation.
So, one can get a thorough review regarding the importance of balanced hormonal system in our body. Because of the broad array of effects of these hormones, it is mandatory that they remain in normal and usual levels. Their increase or decrease both are hazardous for the human body.
To keep a normal balance of these hormones, it is indispensable that you take care of your body. Eat and drink healthy foods. Your diet should be the mixture of all essential nutrients i.e. vitamins as well as minerals in balanced proportion. Those who lack these in their body can get them via the use of certain important supplements.
The normal and healthy hormonal system is the key to your healthy and happy life.
Amna Sheikh is a medical doctor with a Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS), Bachelors in Economics and Statistics. She is also a medical writer working as a freelancer for 10+ years and she is specialized in medical, health, and pharmaceutical writing, regulatory writing & clinical research. All her work is supported by a strong academic and professional experience.