Sleep disorders are complex of variety of sleep related disorders. It involves inability to sleep, fall asleep frequently and quickly, scanty sleep, excess amount of sleep and different types of abnormal behaviors seen during sleep.
There are large amount of forms of sleep disorders. Broadly classification include
An inability to sleep is called insomnia. It is further divided into
- Delayed sleep phase syndrome: Here patient feels better sleep on the times other than normal.
- Psychological insomnia: If a person is under stress, he feels difficult to fall asleep.
- Stimulant-dependent sleep disorder: Here insomnia occurs when a person becomes dependent on certain stimulant to cause him to fall asleep.
- Hypnotic dependent sleep disorder: It is a type of insomnia in which a person becomes so much dependent on the medicines that without taking them, he won’t feel sleep.
It is the disorder in which person feels excess amount of sleep. It further includes
- Narcolepsy: This condition is characterized by uncontrolled bouts of sleepiness during the day. It is also associated sometimes with loss of muscle control, or by strong emotion such as laughter.
- Idiopathic hyper insomnia: Here a person remains sleepy or feels excess sleep without any causes or pathology.
- Restless leg syndrome: Due to improper sleep at night because of restless leg in which patient develops urge to move it, a person remains sleepy throughout a day.
- Sleep apnea: It is a condition in which patient feels difficulty in breathing during sleep which is because of temporary blockage of airways, leading to sleepiness and fatigue during a day.
These are the strange and abnormal behavior associated with sleep. In this condition person walks in sleep, there occur tremors during sleep and one other disorder is rapid eye movement disorder in which person behaves very strangely during sleep and is in dream state and so can harm the person sleeping beside him. Some children shows problem of urination or bedwetting at night. Some talk a lot while sleeping and do teeth gridding. Sexomnia is also seen in many peoples where they find engage in different sexual activities during sleep.
Likewise there are lots of other psychological problems that disturb the sleep and created problem in it. These include depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia, due to excess alcohol intake, mania and panic disorders.
They are of various types depending on the type of sleep disorder. These include fatigue, unfresh mind and low energy during day, snoring and choking in case of sleep apnea at night, poor concentration and feeling of illness all the time.
- Treatment* of Insomnia: Here as sleep is scanty so certain sedative medicines are helpful. The most safe class of sedatives and hypnotics is benzodiazepines especially diazepam. Others include flurazepam, temazepam and triazolam. These are affective in person feeling difficulty in falling asleep.
- Treatment* of Hyperinsomnia: In case of hyperinsomnia certain CNS stimulant are found beneficial. Narcolepsy can be effectively treated with madafinil and armodafinil.
- Treatment* of Parasomnias: These are treated depending on the form which is seen in an individual. Benzodiazepines have found helpful here.