Isoleucine Amino Acid Benefits

amino acids isoleucine

Isoleucine is an essential amino acid so it needs to be provided by the food to our body. It has aliphatic side chain and is non polar. It is also hydrophobic. It has AUU, AUA and AUC codons. Isoleucine along with threonine has chiral side chain. There are four steroisomers of isoleucine along with two diastereomers. It is glucogenic as well as ketogenic amino acid.

Sources

It is found in the following sources;

Animal Sources: Some of the isoleucine animal sources are meats, chicken, fish, turkey, lamb, egg, dairy products, cheese etc

Plant Sources: Some of the plant sources are soy protein, nuts, whole lentils, seaweeds, peanuts etc.

Synthesis

Isoleucine is not synthesized in our body. It must be ingested from foods. In plant it is synthesized from the pyruvate and alpha ketoglutarate with the help of enzymes namely, dihydroxyacid dehydratase, acetolactate synthase, valine aminotransferase and acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase.

Physiological Functions

  • Isoleucine undergoes transamination and forms alpha keto acid which is then converted into aceyl-CoA derivatives and which then gives rise to propionyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA. The propionly-CoA is converted to L-methylmalonyl-CoA and which then forms succinyl-CoA. These play role in citric acid cycle then.
  • Isoleucine has ability to increase strength and also heel and repair muscle tissues. 
  • It also promotes heeling by clotting at the site of injury.
  • It also prevents muscle proteins break down when exercising. 
  • Isoleucine produces many compounds in our body which provides energy to us.
  • Isoleucine is also needed in children for their growth.
  • It also stabilizes and regulates blood sugar levels. This occurs as isoleucine is converted into glucose in the liver which then enters into the blood.

Isoleucine deficiency produces symptoms that are just like hypoglycemic symptoms for example in its deficiency a person may experience confusion, irritability, fatigue, depression, dizziness, headaches etc.

Isoleucine genetically altered metabolism leads to a disease called maple syrup urine disease. So these patients should avoid isoleucine supplements.

Isoleucine is also available in supplements and these supplements are helpful in prevention of muscle wasting and promotion of tissue repair after surgery or trauma. These also increases muscle mass.

Related posts:

Amino acids for brain: DL-Phenylalanine ...
There are 300 naturally occurring amino acids (AA) but only twenty take parts in the formation of proteins, plant as well as animal in origin. They ...
Serine Amino Acid Benefits
Serine is the amino acid with uncharged polar side chain. It was isolated first from the silk protein named sericin in 1865. It is a non essential a...
Tryptophan Amino Acid Benefits
Tryptophan amino acid is the essential amino acid. This means it must be provided through food to the body. It is one of the amino acid which in its...
Alanine Amino Acid Benefits
Alanine is the amino acid with non-polar aliphatic side chains being its methyl group non reactive and is hydrophobic i.e. water repellent. It is th...
Glutamic Amino Acid Benefits
Glutamic acid is an amino acid with acidic side chain and negative charge at neutral pH. It is non essential amino acid as it is synthesized in the ...
Boost your "Feel Good" neurons...
What would you say if I would tell you that your happiness is right there in your brain...but you can't feel it because of all the other bad feelings ...