The multiple activities of the cells, tissues and organs of the body are coordinated by the interplay of various types of chemical messengers system. These are actually hormones.
Hormones are chemicals released by the glands that affect different organs of the body. They are of two types
- Exocrine hormones: These are released in the ducts first and then enter into the blood.
- Endocrine Hormone: These hormones are secreted directly into the bloodstream.
Endocrine hormones play very important roles and their dysfunction, deficiency or excess lead to wide variety of problem throughout the body called hormone disorders.
Some endocrine hormones are as follow along with their functions.
- Growth hormones are necessary for growth in various part of the body.
- Thyroxin increases the rate of many chemical reactions in the body.
- Adrenocorticotropin hormones are essential for reproductive system.
- Mineralocorticoids are important for regulation of the body electrolytes.
- Glucocorticoids are important for stress and inflammation.
- Insulin regulates our body glucose level.
- Parathyroid hormone control extracellular calcium and phosphate concentration.
The disorders of some of the hormones are as follow.
- Dwarfism: This is a condition due to decrease growth hormone secretion. All the physical parts of the body develop in appropriate manner but the rate of development is greatly reduced. So the person is of short stature.
- Gigantism: This condition is due to increase growth hormone which results in increase height so that a person becomes a giant.
- Acromegaly: The acidophilic tumor leads to increase bone thickness and continuous growth of the soft tissues.
- Hyperthyroidism: This is a condition in which increase thyroid hormone leads to many changes in the body. These people show excitation, restlessness, weakness in muscles, increase appetite and extreme fatigue etc.
- Hypothyroidism: This is due to iodine deficiency usually but other causes are also linked to this disease. This lead to the formation of endemic colloid goiter.
- Myxedema: This disease is due to complete absence of thyroid hormone function. So such a patient shows bagginess under the eyes and swelling of the face.
- Cretinism: This disease is of children and is due to hypothyroidism. Skeletal growth is more inhibited. Such a child is obese, stocky, and short appearance.
- Addison’s disease: This disease results from the failure of the adrenal cortices to produce adrenocortical hormones. These patients undergo different types of stress, infection and these things lead to their death.
- Cushing’s syndrome: This syndrome is due to large amount of cortisol in the body. Patients of this disease show moon face, appearance of buffalo torso, acne and hirsutism. Hypertension is also seen here.
- Diabetes Mellitus: This disease is actually a syndrome of impaired carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism which is results of either lack of insulin secretion or due to decrease sensitivity.
- Hypoparathyroidism: This is due to decrease parathyroid hormone and results in spasm of muscles. Respiratory muscle spasms can lead to death even.
- Hyperparathyroidism: This is an abnormality of parathyroid hormone gland which leads to increase parathyroid hormone release which results in bone diseases and kidney stones as well.
- Rickets: It is due to vitamin D deficiency in children leading to legs bowing.
- Osteoporosis: This disease results from decrease organic bone matrix.
- Polycystic ovarian disease: It is due to excess of adrenergic hormone in female caused menstrual irregularities.
- Hypergonadism: This results due to increase secretions of testosterone due to tumor or other pathology.