Glutamic Amino Acid Benefits

amino acids glutamic

Glutamic acid is an amino acid with acidic side chain and negative charge at neutral pH. It is non essential amino acid as it is synthesized in the body. It gives rise to intermediates of citric acid cycle so it is glucogenic. It has codons GAG and GAA. Its salt sand carboxylate anion is called glutamates.

Sources

Glutamic acid is richly present in our normal diet. Some of its sources are.

Animal source: poultry, meet, fish, egg, Kombu and dairy products.

Plant sources: Glutamic acid is present in the wheat with the ratio of thirty five percent of the protein.

Biosynthesis

It is synthesized in the cytosol of hepatocytes by another amino acid the glutarate by the transfer of an amino group to the alpha keto acid. Glutamic acid is manufactured by the reverse of oxidative deamination which is catalyzed by an enzyme glutamate dehydogenase.

Functions

This amino acid gives rise to many compounds essential for our body. These are

  • Glutathione: It is a tripeptide which not only contains glutamic aid but also has one molecule each of cysteine and glycine. The glutathione performs multiple functions in our body. It acts as antioxidant and detoxifies many harmful substances in our body. It plays role in immune system. It also takes part in the synthesis and repair  of DNA and synthesis of protein, prostaglandin etc
  • Glutamine: The glutamine amino acid provides ammonia in the distal convoluted tubules of the kidney.
  • Alpha-ketoglutaric Acid: It shows the alpha ketoacid of glutamic acid and it enters the citric acid cycle.
  • Gamma Amino butyric acid (GABA): Glutamic acid gives rise to most important neurotransmitter GABA by the reaction which is catalyzed by glutamate decarboxylase. This neurotransmitter provides post synaptic inhibition in the central nervous system.
  • Ammonium Ion: Glutamic acid enters the mitochondria and here it gives up its amino form and form ammonium ion which is then used for the urea synthesis.
  • Glutamic acid itself also acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain where it results in increase firing of the neuron.
  • Glutamic acid has also used in treating variety of diseases such as epilepsy, ulcer, mental retardation, hypoglycemic coma, and muscular dystrophies etc.
  • It has also been found beneficial in the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats. It is also helpful in the transport of potassium into the spinal fluid and across the blood brain barrier, but it does not itself pass the blood brain barrier.
  • Our brain also uses glutamic acid as a fuel since it is found in high levels in the blood.
  • It is also seen that treatment with glutamic acid has improved personality disorders and is also beneficial in treating those behavior which are originated since childhood.

These days glutamate has been used as food additives and flavor enhancer. It is also included in certain drugs and is available in the market as dietary supplements. It is also used to enhance plant growth and also has been found useful in the controlling of dipolar interactions.

Related posts:

Amino acids for brain: DL-Phenylalanine ...
There are 300 naturally occurring amino acids (AA) but only twenty take parts in the formation of proteins, plant as well as animal in origin. They ...
Isoleucine Amino Acid Benefits
Isoleucine is an essential amino acid so it needs to be provided by the food to our body. It has aliphatic side chain and is non polar. It is also h...
Methionine Amino Acid Benefits
Methionine is the uncharged polar amino acid. It is an essential amino acid as it is not synthesized in our body and must be provided through food. ...
Serine Amino Acid Benefits
Serine is the amino acid with uncharged polar side chain. It was isolated first from the silk protein named sericin in 1865. It is a non essential a...
Asparagine Amino Acid Benefits
Asparagine amino acid is a non essential amino acid as it is being produced in our body from the other amino acid. It is one of the natural amino ac...
Boost your "Feel Good" neurons...
What would you say if I would tell you that your happiness is right there in your brain...but you can't feel it because of all the other bad feelings ...